Capacitors definition

Capacitors are passive electrical components found in almost all electronics applications. Our range includes over 60,000 different capacitors including aluminium, tantalum, polymer, polyester film and ceramic capacitors. We source from globally renowned manufacturers AVX, Murata, KEMET, Panasonic, TDK and many more, so that you can rely on performance.

Introduction of Capacitors

What is a Capacitor

As one of the most basic electrical parts, a capacitor is a passive electronic component with 2 terminals. And capacitors usually are used to store electrical energy. Apart from Capacitor parts, Resistors and inductors are also included in the most fundamental passive electrical components.

How Does A Capacitor Do?

In the above parts, I explained what capacitors are. And I will answer the question of "How does a capacitor work?" in this passage.

Electric current refers to the flow of electric charge that electrical components use to light up, rotate, or do other tasks. Because the charges can't get through the insulating dielectric when current flows into a capacitor, they become "stuck" on the plates. Electrons, which are negatively charged particles, are drawn into one of the plates, causing it to become negatively charged overall. The vast quantity of negative charges on one plate drives similar charges away, making the other plate positively charged.

Because opposing charges attract each other, the positive and negative charges on each of these plates attract each other. But, no matter how hard they desire to come together, the charges will always be trapped on the plate because of the dielectric (until they have somewhere else to go). The electric field created by the stationary charges on these plates influences electric potential energy and voltage. When charges condense on a capacitor like this, the cap stores electric energy in the same way as a battery does chemical energy.

Types of Capacitors

Capacitors come in a variety of shapes and sizes to suit a variety of applications and purposes. The following are the most common and important Capacitor types.

Ceramic Capacitors

High-frequency circuits, such as audio to RF, employ ceramic capacitors. In audio circuits, they are also the ideal solution for high-frequency correction. Disc capacitors are another name for these capacitors. Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors are created by covering two sides of a tiny porcelain or ceramic disc with silver and stacking them together. Monolithic Ceramic capacitors may be made with low or high capacitance by varying the thickness of the ceramic disc utilized.

They range from a few Pico farads to one microfarad in value. From a few volts to many thousands of volts, the voltage range is vast. 100nf Ceramic Capacitors are low-cost to produce and exist in a variety of dielectric kinds. Ceramics have a low tolerance for wear and tear, yet they serve their purpose well.

Electrolytic Capacitor

The most often used capacitors with a broad tolerance capacity are these. Working voltages up to around 500V are available for electrolytic capacitors, while the greatest capacitance values are not accessible at high voltage, and higher temperature units are available but rare. Tantalum and aluminum are the two most prevalent kinds of electrolytic capacitors.

Tantalum capacitors feature a better display, a higher value, and are only available in a restricted range of parameters. Tantalum oxide's dielectric characteristics are far superior to those of aluminum oxide, allowing for easier leakage current and higher capacitance strength, making it ideal for obstructing, decoupling, and filtering applications.

The capacitors' capacitance values are very high for their size due to the thickness of the aluminum oxide coating and the higher breakdown voltage. A dc current anodizes the foil plates of a capacitor, establishing the material's extremity and verifying the polarity of its side. There are three types of electrolytic capacitors: Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors, Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors and Niobium Oxide Capacitors.

Film Capacitor

Film Capacitors are the most often used of many varieties of capacitors, and they are made up of a diverse set of capacitors with the only difference being their dielectric characteristics. They come in a wide range of sizes and voltages, up to 1500 volts. They are available in a range of tolerances ranging from 10% to 0.1%. Film capacitors are also available in a variety of forms and housing types.

Film Capacitors are divided into two types: radial lead type and axial lead type. Metalized aluminum or zinc electrodes are placed to one or both sides of the plastic film in film capacitors, resulting in metal film capacitors known as film capacitors.

Because their dielectrics are polystyrene, polycarbonate, or Teflon, film-capacitors are sometimes known as plastic capacitors. Because these film types require a significantly thicker dielectric film to reduce the risk of rips or puncture, they are better suited to lower capacitance values and larger case sizes.

Film capacitors are physically bigger and more expensive, but they are not polarized, thus they may be used with AC power, and their electrical properties are significantly more stable. Based on capacitance and dissipation factor, it may be used to replace Class 1 ceramic capacitors in frequency-stable applications.

Applications of Capacitors

Capacitors are used in both electrical and electronic applications. Signal processing devices, Filters, motor starters and energy storage systems all employ Capacitors.


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